Italian CMT Training Program

How we teach CMT in Italy

Following a request received by my friends and consultants Geroge Silberschatz and Marshall Bush, in this post I am going to describe the training that a person who becomes part of our Control Mastery Theory Italian Group (CMT-IG) has to follow in order to become a CMT practitioner.

We accept in our group people who are graduated in psychology or in medicine, but we are open to consider even applications from people with other degrees related to other helping professions, such as degrees in education or social work.

In the first year of membership, new members pay 450 euros, and in the second year the membership fee is 300 euros per year (400 euros for the founders).  

The very first year of training is dedicated to learning the theory. Each new member attends 14 three hours seminars dedicated to the following themes:

1)      An overview of CMT (Francesco Gazzillo)

2)      Adaptation, safety and mastery: basic motivations, unconscious functioning, interpersonal relationships and beliefs (Francesco Gazzillo)

3)      Traumas, pathogenic beliefs and pathogenic schemas (Francesco Gazzillo)

4)      Guilt and shame (Francesco Gazzillo)

5)      Testing (Francesco Gazzillo)

6)      The patient plan and the Plan Formulation Method (Francesco Gazzillo, Federica Genova)

7)      Assuming the right attitude, passing tests and giving pro-plan communications, following patients coaching activities (Francesco Gazzillo)

8)      Dreams, fantasies and sexual fantasies according to CMT (Francesco Gazzillo)

9)      Treating severe patients from a CMT perspective (Francesco Gazzillo, Roberta Alesiani)

10)  CMT and academic counseling (Giuseppe Stefano Biuso)

11)  CMT and children, family and couple therapy (Valeria Crisafulli)

12)  CMT and the clinical work with adolescents (Guido Bossa, Carmela Cicalese)

13)  CMT and social work (Sveva Angrisani)

14)  Questions, doubts and new perspectives (Francesco Gazzillo)

The first year of membership

Before attending the seminars, our members are assigned to read the book How psychotherapy works (Weiss, 1993), while at the end of each seminar we give them several papers to be studied (see the list below). During the theoretical course, each member reads the chapters of the book Fidarsi dei pazienti (Gazzillo, 2016) related to the concepts that will be addressed in the following seminar. In order to have access to the final theoretical exam, each member needs to have attended at least 12 seminars.

The theoretical exam that trainees need to pass in order to have access to the clinical supervision groups of the second and third year of our training consists in writing a brief essay (5 to 10 pages). In this essay, they have to explain a CMT concept within the context of the theory and add some clinical exemplification of the same concept.

The second and third year of membership

After this first theoretical year, each member has access to the second step of our training: s/he has to attend 80 hours of clinical group supervisions in two years. These supervision sessions, aimed at learning how to apply the theory, are held on two consecutive Tuesdays of each month, and each meeting lasts 2 hours. During the first Tuesday, one member has to present the transcriptions, or detailed clinical notes, of the first two-three sessions of a new case together with the formulation of the plan s/he developed. The role of each supervision group, coordinated by one of the founders of our Association, is to assess the goodness of the plan formulation on the basis of the clinical material presented. In the second Tuesday of that month, the same member who presented the clinical material at the previous meeting has to bring one or two sessions of the same patient, from any period of his/her therapy; the aim of this second encounter is to check the correctness of the plan formulation and of the clinician communications on the basis of the reactions of the patients to the therapist interventions.

At the end of these two “clinical years”, every member who attended at least 60 hours of clinical group supervisions has access to the final exam: s/he has to read the transcriptions of the first three sessions of a patient unknown to her/him and to formulate the patient’s plan; then, s/he has to read another session of the same patient and has to write down the communications s/he would have given to that patient according to her/his plan formulation.

If a person wants to have also individual CMT supervision, s/he is free to choose one of the senior member of our association to have them, and we have established a fixed fee (45 euros) for them.

The writings of both the theoretical and the clinical exam are evaluated by the eight founders of our Association.

Other activities

After having passed the theoretical exam, each member can take part in our study groups; so far, five groups are active:

1)      Empirical research on CMT concepts (coordinated by Francesco Gazzillo)

2)      CMT in academic counseling (coordinated by Giuseppe Stefano Biuso)

3)      CMT in children, family and couple therapy (coordinated by Valeria Crisafulli)

4)      CMT in clinical work with adolescents (coordinated by Guido Bossa and Carmela Cicalese)

5)      CMT in social work (coordinated by Sveva Angrisani)

After having passed the clinical exam, each member can start a new study group if s/he finds at least three people interested in that topic. The aim of each of these groups is to study a particular topic from a CMT perspective and publish papers on that topic.

Each member can also propose the publication of her/his CMT writings on the section “Idee” (Ideas) of our website. Each paper proposed for publication is evaluated by the 8 founders of our Association and can be accepted, rejected or accepted after the requested modifications are done.

These are the basic elements of our training.

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Preliminary reading

Weiss, J. (1993), How psychotherapy works. Process and technique. New York, Guilford.

Basic book

Gazzillo, F. (2016), Fidarsi dei pazienti. Introduzione alla Control-Mastery Theory. Raffaello Cortina, Milano

Adaptation, safety and beliefs

1.      De Luca, E., Mazza, C., Gazzillo, F. (2018), Mente razionale e inconscio adattivo/Rational mind and adaptive unconscious. In CMT-IG (2018), Esplorazioni teorico-cliniche. Il primo anno del CMT-IG/Theoretical and clinical explorations. The first year of CMT-IG. Edizioni CMT-IG, Roma, pp.58-76

2.      Genova, F., (2018), La biologia della sicurezza/Biology of safety. In CMT-IG (2018), Esplorazioni teorico-cliniche. Il primo anno del CMT-IG/Theoretical and clinical explorations. The first year of CMT-IG. Edizioni CMT-IG, Roma, pp.77-106.

3.      Sampson, H. (1990), The problem of adaptation to reality in Psychoanalytic Theory. In Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 26(4), pp. 677-691. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00107530.1990.10746685.

4.      Sampson, H. (1992), The role of "real" experience in psychopathology and treatment. In Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 2(4), pp. 509-528.

5.      Silberschatz, G. (2005), The Control-Mastery Theory. In G. Silberschatz (a cura di), Transformative Relationships: The Control-Mastery Theory of Psychotherapy (pp. 3-23). New York: Routledge.

6.      Weiss, J. (1990), The centrality of adaptation. In Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 26(4), pp. 660-676.

7.      Weiss, J. (2005), Safety. In G. Silberschatz (a cura di), Transformative Relationships: The Control-Mastery Theory of Psychotherapy (pp. 31-42). New York: Routledge.

Pathogenic beliefs, affects and interpersonal guilt

1.      Bush, M. (2005), The role of unconscious guilt in psychopathology and in psychotherapy. In G. Silberschatz (a cura di), Transformative Relationships: The Control-Mastery Theory of Psychotherapy (pp. 43-66). New York: Routledge.

2.      Curtis, J.T., Silberschatz, G. (2005), The Assessment of Pathogenic Beliefs. In G. Silberschatz (a cura di), Transformative Relationships: The Control-Mastery Theory of Psychotherapy (pp. 69-92). New York: Routledge.

3.      De Luca, E., Mazza, C., Gazzillo, F. (2018), La centralità dell’adattamento: funzionamento motivazionale e moralità tra neuroscienze, psicologia evoluzionistica e Control-Mastery Theory/The centrality of adaptation: motivational functioning and moraliry accordinf to neurosciences, evolutionary psychology and Control-Mastery Theory. In CMT-IG (2018), Esplorazioni teorico-cliniche. Il primo anno del CMT-IG/Theoretical and clinical explorations. The first year of CMT-IG. Edizioni CMT-IG, Roma, pp16-57.

4.      Fimiani, R., De Luca, E., Rodomonti, M., Fazeli Fariz-Hendi, S., Nicolais, G., Gazzillo, F. (2018), Note sullo sviluppo del senso morale/Notes on moral development. Rassegna di psicologia, XXXV, 1, pp. 29-39

5.      Gazzillo, F., Gorman, B., Bush M., Silberschatz, G., Mazza, C., Faccini, F., Crisafulli, V., Alesiani, R., & De Luca, E. (2017), Reliability and validity of the Interpersonal Guilt Rating Scale-15: A new clinician-reporting tool for assessing interpersonal guilt according to Control-Mastery Theory. In Psychodynamic Psychiatry, 45(3), pp. 362-384.

6.      Gazzillo, F., Gorman, B., De Luca, E., Faccini, F., Bush, M., Silberschatz, G., Dazzi N. (2018). Preliminary data about the validation of a self-report for the assessment of interpersonal guilt: The Interpersonal Guilt Rating Scales-15 s (IGRS-15s). Psychodynamic Psychiatry, 46, pp.362-384.

7.      O' Connor, L.E. (2002), Pathogenic beliefs and guilt in human evolution: Implications for psychotherapy. In P. Gilbert, & K.G. Bailey (a cura di), Genes on the coach: Explorations in evolutionary psychotherapy (pp. 276-303). New York: Routledge.

8.      Silberschatz, G., & Sampson, H. (1991), Affects in psychopathology and psychotherapy. In J. Safran, & L.S. Greenberg (a cura di), Emotions, Psychotherapy, and Change (pp. 113-129). New York: Guilford Press.

9.      Weiss, J. (1997), The role of pathogenic beliefs in psychic reality. In Psychoanalytic Psychology, 14(3), pp. 427-434.

 

Patients unconscious plan

1.      Alesiani, R., Villa, D., Pieri, A., Boccalon, S., Gazzillo, F. (2018), L’importanza dei primi colloqui nella CMT/The relevance of intake sessions in CMT. In CMT-IG (2018), Esplorazioni teorico-cliniche. Il primo anno del CMT-IG/Theoretical and clinical explorations. The first year of CMT-IG. Edizioni CMT-IG, Roma, pp.108-121.

2.      Bossa, G. (2018), Adolescenti e genitori: sviluppo sano e problematiche secondo la CMT/Adolescents and their parents: normal development and problems according to CMT. In CMT-IG (2018), Esplorazioni teorico-cliniche. Il primo anno del CMT-IG/Theoretical and clinical explorations. The first year of CMT-IG. Edizioni CMT-IG, Roma, pp.204-215.

3.      Crisafulli, V. (2018), Il metodo per la formulazione del piano in età evolutiva (PFMda)/Plan Formulation Method for the developmental period (PFDMda). In CMT-IG (2018), Esplorazioni teorico-cliniche. Il primo anno del CMT-IG/Theoretical and clinical explorations. The first year of CMT-IG. Edizioni CMT-IG, Roma, pp.190-203.

4.      Crisafulli V., Rodomonti M. (2018), La formulazione del piano di coppia (PFMc)/Plan Formulation Method for Couples (PFMc). In CMT-IG (2018), Esplorazioni teorico-cliniche. Il primo anno del CMT-IG/Theoretical and clinical explorations. The first year of CMT-IG. Edizioni CMT-IG, Roma, pp.174-189.

5.      Curtis, J., Gazzillo, F. (2018), Discussione sul concetto di piano di Joseph Weiss/A discussion on Josef Weiss plan concept. In CMT-IG (2018), Esplorazioni teorico-cliniche. Il primo anno del CMT-IG/Theoretical and clinical explorations. The first year of CMT-IG. Edizioni CMT-IG, Roma, pp.323-343.

6.      Gazzillo, F. (2018), Note sull’ascolto in ottica CMT/Notes on clinical listening from the CMT perspective. In CMT-IG (2018), Esplorazioni teorico-cliniche. Il primo anno del CMT-IG/Theoretical and clinical explorations. The first year of CMT-IG. Edizioni CMT-IG, Roma, pp122-128.

7.      Curtis, J.T., & Silberschatz, G. (1986), Clinical implications of research on brief dynamic psychotherapy, I: Formulating the patient's problems and goals. In Psychoanalytic Psychology, 3(1), pp. 13-25.

8.      Silberschatz, G. (2008), How patients work on their plan and test their therapists in psychotherapy. In Smith College Studies In Social Work, 78(2–3), pp. 275-286.

9.      Watchel, P.L., & Demichele, A. (1998), Unconscious plan or unconscious conflict? Commentary Joseph Weiss's Paper. In Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 8(3), pp. 429-442.

10.  Weiss, J. (1998), Patients' unconscious plans for solving their problems. In Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 8(3), pp. 411-428.

11.  Weiss, J. (1998), Unconscious plans and unconscious conflict. Replay to commentary. In Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 8(3), pp. 443-453.

Tests, interpretations, attitude and coaching

1.      Bugas, J., & Silberschatz, G. (2000), How patients coach their therapists in psychotherapy. In Psychotherapy, 37(1), pp. 64-70.

2.      Gazzillo, F. (2018), Differenziare i test da passivo in attivo: per compiacenza e per ribellione/Differentiating passive-into-active tests: by compliance and by non compliance. In CMT-IG (2018), Esplorazioni teorico-cliniche. Il primo anno del CMT-IG/Theoretical and clinical explorations. The first year of CMT-IG. Edizioni CMT-IG, Roma, pp.161-166.

3.      Gazzillo, F., Genova, F., Fedeli, F., Bush, M., Curtis, J.T., Silberschatz, G. (2018), Patients unconscious testing activity in psychotherapy: a theoretical and empirical overview. Manuscript submitted for publication.

4.      Sampson, H. (2005), Treatment by attitudes. In G. Silberschatz (a cura di), Transformative Relationships: The Control-Mastery Theory of Psychotherapy (pp. 111-119). New York: Routledge.

5.      Silberschatz, G., & Curtis, J.T., (1986), Clinical implications of research on brief dynamic psychotherapy, II: How the therapist helps or hinders therapeutic progress. In Psychoanalytic Psychology, 3(1), pp. 27-37.

6.      Silberschatz, G., & Curtis, J.T., (1993), Measuring the therapist’s impact on the patient’s therapeutic progress. In Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, pp. 403-411.

7.      Weiss, J. (1992), The role of Interpretation. In Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 12(2), pp. 296-313.

8.      Weiss, J. (1994), The analyst’s task: To help the patient carry out his plan. In Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 30(2), pp. 236-254.

 

Dreams and sexual fantasies

1.      Bader, M. (2002), Arousal. The secret logic of sexual fantasies. Italian edition published by Raffaello Cortina, Milan, 2018.

2.      Messina, I., Gazzillo, F. (2018), Un sogno ben analizzato in ottica CMT/A dream well analyzed according to CMT hypotheses. In CMT-IG (2018), Esplorazioni teorico-cliniche. Il primo anno del CMT-IG/Theoretical and clinical explorations. The first year of CMT-IG. Edizioni CMT-IG, Roma, pp.167-172.

3.      Weiss, J. (1993), L'uso dei sogni da parte del terapeuta/The therapist’s use of dreams. In Weiss, J. (1993), How psychotherapy works. Process and technique. New York, Guilford, pp.142-166.

4.      Weiss, J. (1998), “Bondage fantasies and beating fantasies”. In Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 67(4), pp. 626-644.

Treating severe disorders and working in specific settings

1.      Biuso, G. S. (2018), Come funziona il counselling universitario/How university counselling works. In CMT-IG (2018), Esplorazioni teorico-cliniche. Il primo anno del CMT-IG/Theoretical and clinical explorations. The first year of CMT-IG. Edizioni CMT-IG, Roma, pp.254-290.

2.      O' Connor, L.E., Weiss, J. (1993), Individual psychotherapy for addicted clients: an application of Control-Mastery Theory. In Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 25(4), pp. 283-291.

3.      Pryor, K. (2005), A long-term therapy case illustrating treatment by attitude. In G. Silberschatz (a cura di), Transformative Relationships: The Control-Mastery Theory of Psychotherapy (pp. 121-151). New York: Routledge.

4.      Shilkret, C.J. (2006), Endangered by interpretations. Treatment by attitudes of the narcissistically vulnerable patients. In Psychoanalytic Psychology, 23(1), pp.30-42.

5.      Weiss, J. (1996), The second century of psychoanalysis. In Psychoanalytic Psychology, 13(2), pp. 251-258.